Poster board J
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Immunological relevant factors in Gastro-intestinal tract
An apple a day keeps the doctor away ! ” Influence of
flavanol rich feeding regimens on the villi and crypt morphology in
ileum, and colon of young piglets.
Julia HERZIG, Claudia DUMMER & Michael W. PFAFFL
Introduction: The intestinal tract of piglets change during
and especially in the time around weaning. The change from sow milk to
causes diversification in gut crypts and gut villi morphology. In this
the piglets have often diarrhea which produce high costs in breeding.
facility is to give antibiotic with the feed ingredients, but from 2006
the antibiotics in feed are forbidden in the EU. Therefore farmers have
look after another possibilities to improve gut health. In this
two different flavanol rich feeding regimens were applied in young
piglets (freeze dried apple and red wine pomace). This compounds have
amounts of polyphenols which are known as healthy drugs. The average of
total polyphenol content in apple is 3 g per kg fresh weight (0.5 – 11
and 2 mg/liter red wine.
Methods: In this study 78 piglets were fed over 4 weeks with
different feeding regimens. 26 animals were fed with normal piglet
26 got additionally 3.5% dry matter (dm) apple pomace and further 26
3.5% dm red wine pomace. Pigs were killed by electric gripper and
Samples of jejunum, ileum, and colon were collected for the histology
Tissues were fixed two days in 3.7% formalin, dewatered and embedded
in paraffin wax. Paraffin wax embedded tissues were sectioned (9
in thickness, Microm, Walldorf, Germany), mounted on 2% silane (Sigma,
Germany) coated slides, dewaxed in Xylol and rehydrated in descending
Slices were stained with Mayer`s Hemalaun (C.I. N°: 75290; Merck,
Germany), dehydrated in descending alcohols, rinsed in Xylol and
in Eukitt (Kindler, Freiburg, Germany). All sections were viewed under
axioskop (Zeiss microscope, Munich, Germany). Gut villi length, crypt
and breath, and peyer patches area were imaged and measured in
(n = 234 each) by using a digital camera and axiovision software (Carl
Axio Cam MR, axiovision software, 3.0.6 SP3).
Results: The villi area in jejunum increase strongest in the
animals and apple feed animals. No significant growth could be shown in
red wine pomace group. No significant changes could be shown in ileum.
patch were highly enlarged in control group after 28 days. In colon the
and crypt area growth was significantly increased in apple as well in
wine pomace feeding groups.
Tables: Villi, crypt, and peyer patch morphology in
ileum, and colon of piglets. Linear regression of the growth (y) in
(x) in mm or mm². The percentage value shows the relative growth
28 days, compared to the starting day 0. Significant growth over 28
is indicated by p value.
Discussion: Results show that in jejunum the villi growth
inhibited by red wine pomace, and slightly reduced by apple pomace,
to control animals. In Ileum no effect on the gut morphology were
but the incorporated peyer patch were enlarged in control group. This
a peyer patch activation in the flavanoid lacking feeding regimen and
an immuno-preventive effect of flavanols in the ileum. In colon both
feeding regimen can enhance the villi and crypt growth.
In a further experiment the size of the epithelial cells was measured,
test if the villi or the cells itself are growing under the influence
flavanols. Cells sizes stay constant under all three feeding regimes as
over 28 days. This indicates that the villi itself is growing and the
cells sizes stay constant.
Conclusions: Apple and red wine pomace can reduce the
system activation via the peyer patches in the ileum. Different fruits
diverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Red wine pomace has
effects in the jejunum villi and apple pomace has a stimulating effect
colon villi and crypt. Flavanoid rich feeding regimen showed positive
on gut health and is a good alternative to improve pig health in
after the ban on antibiotics.